Taking into consideration only the two accepted types of flowers, a Composite flower can have three difference flower-head structures, combination, disk only, and ray only 5. Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs generally erect but can be prostrate to ascending. The pistil consists of two connate carpels. sunflower, Spanish needle, dahlia, zinnia, goldenrod, fleabane, aster, sneezeweed, Some species have underground stems in the form of caudices or rhizomes. Of course in standard English, speaking with people whose minds are on other things than Disc florets are usually actinomorphic, with five petal lips on the rim of the corolla tube. [citation needed] Centaurea (knapweed), Helianthus annuus (domestic sunflower), and some species of Solidago (goldenrod) are major "honey plants" for beekeepers. [5][8] Which is the larger family is unclear, because of the uncertainty about how many extant species each family includes. Beneath the flower head there is a collection of On and on pappus variations go, typically all the members of a genus possessing similar Sia Morhardt, Emil Morhardt, California Desert Flowers, University of California Press, pp. [5], Asteraceae produce secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As with the bracts, the nature of the pappus is an important diagnostic feature. There are usually five stamens. The four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, Carduoideae and Mutisioideae contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family (approximately 70%, 14%, 11% and 3% respectively). When you begin trying to figure out what kind of composite flower you have, the first Pollen is released inside the tube and is collected around the growing style, and then, as the style elongates, is pushed out of the tube (nüdelspritze). In these composites, the individual flowers are also called florets. Cichorioideae: 224 genera, 3,200 species. [20] The individual heads have the smaller individual flowers arranged on a round or dome-like structure called the receptacle. Cypsela morphology is often used to help determine plant relationships at the genus and species level. SIP-suh-luh). A set of bracts forms an involucre surrounding the base of the capitulum. Absent from Europe, mostly in South America. The alternative name Compositae is still valid under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. very unique flowers. Asia, Gymnarrhenoideae: Two genera/species, Gymnarrhena micrantha (Northern Africa, Middle East) and Cavea tanguensis (Eastern Himalayas). [20] A ligulate flower is a 5-tipped, strap-shaped, individual flower in the heads of other members. Each individual  bract is technically known as a phyllary (FIL-uh-ree). Of these, many are invasive species in particular regions, often having been introduced by human agency. The latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, and has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. At the bottom of the picture at the The largest proportion of the species occur in the arid and semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes. In the Asteroideae and other minor subfamilies these are usually borne only on florets at the circumference of the capitulum and have a 3+2 scheme – above the fused corolla tube, three very long fused petals form the ligule, with the other two petals being inconspicuously small. Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite, or sunflower family), is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae). [20] When a sunflower family flower head has only disc flowers that are sterile, male, or have both male and female parts, it is a discoid head. Hecastocleidoideae: Only Hecastocleis shockleyi. Southwestern United States. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed. Asteraceae is an economically important family, providing products such as cooking oils, leaf vegetables like lettuce, sunflower seeds, artichokes, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes and herbal teas. Solbrig, O.T. As a result, several of these genera have required multiple revisions.[19]. Flowers serve as reproductive structures for many plants, and the parts of a complete flower help ensure its reproductive success. look like petals on a simpler flower. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species ranging from subpolar to tropical regions, colonizing a wide variety of habitats. Latin America and southern United States. Solidago produces relatively high protein pollen, which helps honey bees over winter. Composite flowers are separated into two types of flowers, the disk, and the ray flower. enabling the achenes to be blown by the wind into new territory. are considered a little different. (1963) Subfamilial Nomenclature of Compositae. [16][17][18] see how many orchid species occupy really specialized habitats, you'll understand. Composite Families. This is because the petals open at dawn and close at dusk. Choose a key among those near the bottom of the long page you arrive at when you click the above link. You might enjoy looking over our, (Blossoms of the Composite or Aster Family, the Asteraceae), Asteraceae section of the Flora of North America site, page examining the varied the world of Composite Family involucre bracts. that fall off when the achene is mature. The inflorescence is a swollen axis, termed a receptacle, which is in the form of a flattened disc bearing the individual flowers. Enlarged outer (peripheral) flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, and the involucral bracts may look like a calyx. books, cypsela are referred to as "achenes," but nowadays the two fruit types The big thing about Composite Family flower structure is that the head brings together several to very many tiny flowers, or florets, so that they look like just Some examples are Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Calendula, Dendranthema, Argyranthemum, Dahlia, Tagetes, Zinnia, and many others. hikers' pants), and thus travel into new territory to be planted. [26], Members of the family are also commonly featured in medical and phytochemical journals because the sesquiterpene lactone compounds contained within them are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. When you are identifying species in the Composite Family, Probably it surprises you  that orchids make this list. the right. [29], Several members of the family are copious nectar producers[29] and are useful for evaluating pollinator populations during their bloom. If you visit the tropics and Nearly all Asteraceae bear their flowers in dense heads (capitula or pseudanthia) surrounded by involucral bracts.