2. , Second verse of the first chapter of Genesis, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWalton2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFTsumura1989 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFThompson1980 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWenham2003 (, “Ruaḥ ’Elohim in Genesis 1:2 in Light of Phoenician Cosmogonies: A Tradition’s History,”, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Genesis_1:2&oldid=983968066, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 10:29. l. 1. For He is the Maker of all things (Jeremiah 10:16). All rights reserved. l. 2. c. 10. p. 33. This serves to introduce the rest of the chapter, which describes a process of forming and filling.  William Dumbrell notes that the reference to the "deep" in this verse "alludes to the detail of the ancient Near Eastern cosmologies" in which "a general threat to order comes from the unruly and chaotic sea, which is finally tamed by a warrior god." , The "Spirit of God" hovering over the waters in some translations of Genesis 1:2 comes from the Hebrew phrase ruach elohim, which has alternately been interpreted as a "great wind". Genesis 1:2 probably describes what we now call the earth before God created it. Use this table to get a word-for-word translation of the original Hebrew Scripture. Chagigah, fol. Evangel. "Tohu wabohu" is commonly translated as "formless and empty", and denotes the absence of some abstract quality such as purpose or worth. Bible> Genesis> Chapter 1> Verse 2. l. 10. c. 14. p. 504. In the Enûma Eliš, the Deep is personified as the goddess Tiamat, the enemy of Marduk; here it is the formless body of primeval water surrounding the habitable world, later to be released during the Deluge, when "all the fountains of the great deep burst forth" from the waters beneath the earth and from the "windows" of the sky. Tracing back through the biblical genealogies we can determine the age of the universe to be about six thousand years with an error of not more than two per cent. It was, as Ovid F11 calls it, a chaos and an indigested mass of matter; and Hesiod F12 makes a chaos first to exist, and then the wide extended earth, and so Orpheus F13, and others; and this is agreeably to the notion of various nations. Evangel. The gap theory The Hebrew version begins with a relative clause: “In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void (protogon) , ver. 2. (Genesis 1:2) Is this only about the earth? Before God begins to create, the world is tohu wa-bohu (Hebrew: תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ): the word tohu by itself means "emptiness, futility"; it is used to describe the desert wilderness. That is, on the first three days the heavens, the sky and the land is formed, and they are filled on days four to six by luminaries, birds and fish, and animals and man respectively. And the earth was without form, and void. F25 Cicero de Nat. l. 2. c. 10. p. 33. Editor.). The same sentiment is in B. Genesis 1:2. The Deep is a watery abyss. Analysis. Here "earth" refers to the whole planet, though the same English word also refers to the earth and the heavens (when combined with "heaven," Genesis 1:1), and to dry land ( Genesis 1:10). Genesis 1:2 presents an initial condition of creation - namely, that it is tohu wa-bohu, formless and void.This serves to introduce the rest of the chapter, which describes a process of forming and filling. This can mean 'earth' or 'land' or 'territory.' There is no monster (Tiamat). Hist.   Victor P. Hamilton decides, somewhat tentatively, for "spirit of God" but notes that this does not necessarily refer to the "Holy Spirit" of Christian theology. Some traces of this appear in the (nouv) or mind of Anaxagoras, which when all things were mixed together came and set them in order F24; and the "mens" of Thales he calls God, which formed all things out of water F25; and the "spiritus intus alit" of Virgil; and with this agrees what Hermes says, that there was an infinite darkness in the abyss or deep, and water, and a small intelligent spirit, endued with a divine power, were in the chaos F26: and perhaps from hence is the mundane egg, or egg of Orpheus F1: or the firstborn or first laid egg, out of which all things were formed; and which he borrowed from the Egyptians and Phoenicians, and they perhaps from the Jews, and which was reckoned by them a resemblance of the world.