Disagreements between religious groups and instances of religious persecution have … Bloch argues religion can be an expression of the principle of hope. In early Europe, the translation of sacred texts into everyday, non-scholarly language empowered people to shape their religions. On the other hand he argues that religion can challenge the status quo and encourage social change. Social change refers to the transformation of culture, behavior, social institutions, and social structure over time. What influence does religion have on other social institutions, such as political or educational institutions? How does religion affect social change? Religiosity is the intensity and consistency of practice of a … it acts as a radical force, an impetus for change). Religion has historically been a major impetus to social change. Sociologists also study the religiosity of individuals, groups, and societies. Bloch argued that religion could lead to social change because it had the ability to inspire protest and rebellion. While such traditions usually help maintain social cohesion, they can also aid in challenging social cohesion. All agree that religion promotes stability and helps to preserve the status quo and prevent upheaval and rapid social change. Item A says “religious beliefs can sometimes lead believers to act in ways that have unforeseen consequences for society”. Religious traditions contribute to both continuity and change in social cohesion. Engels argues that religion can prevent change by disguising inequality – refer to Marxist theory of religion. We are familiar from Chapter 5 “Social Structure and Social Interaction” with the basic types of society: hunting-and-gathering, horticultural and pastoral, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial. Although both Functionalism and Marxism offer a plausible account of religion’s role in society, many are critical of such narrow views, arguing that religion does not act as a conservative force, and actually has the completely opposite purpose (i.e.