137–162). These efforts all pinpoint the problem or problems, and then data are collected (sometimes in reverse order if it is difficult to identify the specific problem without first having collected the data). “An important part of SCP focuses on decreasing the benefits crime offers,” Andrews says. Instead, SCP is uniquely concerned with the practical question of how offenders successfully commit their crimes. Displacement may also occur in respect to time, target selection, one type of offense to another, or a change of tactics (Reppetto, 1976). Of course, psychologists rightly observe that taking heroin is not a rational choice—that is, it is bad for the user’s health (in most cases). Importantly, a growing number of empirical studies and scientific evaluations have demonstrated SCP’s effectiveness in reducing crime. Sixth, the laws and legal traditions in different countries can greatly affect the scope for government intervention. Rasmussen College is a regionally accredited college authorized to operate as a postsecondary educational institution by the Illinois Board of Higher Education. They perceive their own needs (they want money for a drug habit), and they perceive environments (near and far) as offering them opportunities to carry out their course of action, whether it be burglary, bank robbery, or a terrorist attack. In 1989 in the United Kingdom, Heinz suffered an incident of tampering with its baby food products, which cost it at least £2 million in advertising to re-launch the product after it was protected with tamper-resistant packaging (Clarke & Newman, 2005, pp. Soft interventions reduce situational prompts/cues that increase a person’s motivation to commit a crime during specific types of events (Cornish & Clarke, 2003; Freilich & Chermak, 2009; Wortley, 2008). Similarly, some SCP hard techniques (e.g., the use of CCTV cameras, the public deployment of police officers, and environmental design initiatives to increase surveillance) are consistent with Beccaria’s certainty claims, because they warn individuals that if they offend they are likely to be immediately apprehended (Cozens, 2008; Jeffrey & Zahm, 1993). Civil and other government regulations have been used to good effect by SCP to regulate establishments, product design, and individual behavior to reduce crime. Clarke and Newman (2005a, 2005b) have discussed six important points relating to government regulation of crime. Bentham (1789), whose utilitarian approach anticipated operations research in post World War II Britain, similarly viewed human behavior as being motivated by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. There is no obligation to enroll. Rasmussen College does not guarantee, approve, control, or specifically endorse the information or products available on websites linked to, and is not endorsed by website owners, authors and/or organizations referenced. Yet even in the case of a drug addict, carrying out a burglary to acquire heroin requires rational decision making—whether to find a dealer for the right price, to rob a convenience store to get the money, or to break into a pharmacy to steal the drug. Nagin and Weisburd (2013) and Perry et al. What makes SCP different from other prevention methods is its focus on specific circumstances where actual crimes have occurred or are likely to occur, sometimes referred to as “near crime.” “Situational crime prevention seeks to reduce the harms caused by crime through altering immediate or situational factors in the environments where crime regularly occurs,” write Shariati and Guerette. The script method analyzes the sequence of behaviors and events that are the result or cause of offender decision making and are used to identify the interventions (by first highlighting the opportunities and intervention points). In sum, the opportunity structure focuses on a specific crime and application of the script method (all discussed above) to uncover possible preventative interventions. This piece of ad content was created by Rasmussen College to support its educational programs. It may require the collection of information from participants in the situations in which the crime occurs, such as offenders, victims, and law enforcement personnel. Newman and Clarke (2003, p. 7) explain that SCP’s approach is similar to that of “operations research” (Wilkins, 1997), in which the researcher works closely with the persons who are actually on the job. There are a number of methodological challenges in measuring the effect of particular interventions designed to reduce or prevent specific crimes. The originating concept of situational crime prevention (SCP) is “opportunity reduction” (Clarke, 1980). It does this by focusing on how (rather than why) crime happens—and therefore, how it can be prevented. Please select another program of interest. The paper described other studies that demonstrated this aspect of opportunity in a variety of settings: changes in the physical environment that reduced boys’ absconding from school, reductions in the toxicity of coal gas that resulted in the decline of suicide by inhaling coal gas, a common method of suicide at the time, carelessness of victims that made stealing cars and burglary easier, the poor design of housing estates that reduced surveillance by neighbors. Similarly, certain Internet crimes are commonly believed to be the result of the “hacker's ethic,” which, it is often claimed, derives from a “culture” or “subculture” to which computer buffs adhere (Newman & Clarke, 2003). Rasmussen College is not enrolling students in your state at this time. This approach endorses using the cap-and-trade market approach that is now used to control carbon emissions (Newman, 2012). This raises the interesting question of the relationship between situations and culture. What works will depend on many factors, including the cost and practicality of implementation. Again, the conceptual approach is on “how” not “why”—although the answers to the “little whys” may he sought along the way, such as why did the burglar choose this house to enter rather than another. Focusing on specific crime types (or problems) will lead to the identification of the situational characteristics—the opportunities—that allow the perpetrator to successfully complete the crime. The work of Cavallo and Drummond (1994) in Australia applied a number of situational techniques to reduce the level of drunk driving, not the least of which were random breath tests. This diffusion of benefits means that SCP essentially has a compounding effect, doing good for multiple communities rather than just one isolated location. His doctoral thesis examined why some boys ran away (“absconded”) from the school. But the techniques of advertising, which are essentially designed to affect directly an individual’s decisions and choices at a specific moment—usually to buy a particular product brand—are well established. However, the more sophisticated version of rational choice put forward by Simon (1955), with his idea of “satisficing” (satisfactory and sufficient), a decision-making strategy that accepts a “good enough” outcome, rather than the best choice of alternatives as posed by Bentham originally and throughout economic theory, was adopted by SCP in its infancy (Cornish & Clarke, 1986).